Modern Greek Studies Association


Women in Greek Society

If you wish to add a title or titles to the list, please send the bibliographic reference and, if possible, a short annotation to Martha Klironomos i


Alexiou, M. 1989. “Women, Marriage and Death in the Drama of Renaissance Crete.” In M. Mackenzie and C. Rouche (eds.), Images of Authority Papers: Presented to Joyce Reynolds on the Occasion of Her Seventieth Birthday. Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society.

Allen, P. 1986. “Female Inheritance, Housing and Urbanization.” Anthropology 10 (1): 1-17.

Anastasopoulou, M. 1997. “Feminist Discourse and Literary Representation in Turn-of-the-Century Greece: Kallirrhoe Siganou-Parren, The Book of Dawn.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 15: 1-28.

Angelaki-Rooke, K. 1983. “Sex Roles in Modern Greek Poetry.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1: 141-155.

Anthias, F. 1983. “Sexual Divisions and Ethnic Adaptation: The Case of Greek-Cypriote Women.” In A. Phizaclea (ed.), One Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labour. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Anthias, F. and N. Yuval-Davis. 1983. “Contextualizing Feminism-Gender, Ethnic and Class Divisions.” Feminist Review 15: 62-75.

Anthias, Floya and Gabriella Lazaridis. 2000.  Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move. Oxford: Berg.

The important role women play in the process of migration to the Western bloc, and in particular to Southern Europe where they often find jobs in the domestic service, tourist or sex industries, has been increasingly recognized. This timely book provides essential new insights into the forms of migration and the impact of gender relations on the migration and accommodation process, and also raises general conceptual issues about ways of understanding migration in a global context.
At a time when all the member states of the European Union have called for a reduction in immigration in response to its steady growth, the urgency of the topic is apparent. Contributors examine the possible legal, social and economic problems that increased immigration may produce, including: female migration and its relation to changing gender relations in the country of migration; different forms of exclusion faced by male and female migrants; working conditions and status; migrant networks; and women's role in reproducing and maintaining ethnic culture.

Argemir, D. 1992.  “Gender, Kinship and Identities: Paths in Greek Social Anthropology.” Critique of Anthropology 12 (2): 209-213.

Aries, Philippe and Georges Duby. 1987. A History of Private Life. Vol. 1: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium.  Cambridge MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press

Avdela, Efi and Angelika Psarra. 1985.Ο Φεμινισμός στην Ελλάδα του Μεσοπολέμου. Athens: Gnosi.


Bakalaki, A. 1994. “Gender Related Discourses and Representations of Cultural Specificity in C19 and C20 Greece.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 12: 75-112.

Beer, Edith S. 1972.  The Greek Odyssey of an American Nurse: Adapted from the Unfinished Autobiography of Emilie Willms R.N.Mystic, CT: Lawrence Verry Inc.

Emilie Willms was recruited for the American Women's Hospital in 1928 and worked there until 1955. She worked with Dr. Parmalee to serve Asia Minor refugees in Kokkinia, helped establish a children's hospital in Athens, was made director of the 7th Army Hospital in 1941 and served there until repatriated to America. She joined the Near East Foundation from 1943 and worked with Dr. Parmalee to provide health care at Greek refugee camps in Egypt before doing further relief work in the Cyclades in 1944. She returned to Athens in Nov. 1945 to the "Elpis" hospital. Later she served at St. Sophia Children's Hospital (till 1948). She was instrumental in establishing a rehabilitation center for the disabled in Psychiko until her retirement in 1955.

Boleman-Herring, Elizabeth. 1990. “Greek Unorthodox:The Best of the Close to Home Column.” Athens: Foundation Publishing.

Apt and amusing articles, originally published in The Athenian magazine.

Bottomley, G. 1975. “Some Greek Sex Roles: Ideals, Expectations and Action in Australia and Greece.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 10(1): 8-16.

Bottomley, G. 1986. “A World Divided? Studies of Gender Relations in Modern Greece.” Mankind 16: 181-189.

Bottomley, G. 1997. “Identification: Ethnicity, Gender and Culture.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 18(1): 41-48.

Bouras, Gillian. 2010.  Aphrodite and the Others. Athens: Gialos Publishing.

What happens when Gillian, the university-educated daughter-in-law from Australia, arrives on a visit to Aphrodite, her illiterate, 72-year-old Greek mother-in-law and priest’s widow, and decides unexpectedly to stay in her Peloponnesian village? In this touching book, Gillian Bouras tells this story of coming to terms with the formidable representative of another world - one characterized by an oral culture - so far removed from everything she had known. The more time she spends with her mother-in-law, the more it dawns on her that becoming literate entails a certain sacrifice, the loss of contact with the oral world. In writing the story of her mother-in-law's life, Bouras recounts her own difficulties as an educated independent Westerner coming to terms with a woman so culturally different and so domestically powerful.
First published in 1994, when it won a New South Wales state literary award, Bouras’ book is a celebration of the essence of Greek rural life.

Bouras, Gillian. 1994.  Aphrodite and the Others. Australia: McPhee Gribble.

Aphrodite - priest's wife, matriarch, illiterate- has lived in her village in the Peloponnese for 86 years --- in writing the story of her mother-in-law's life, Gillian Bouras recounts her own difficulties as an educated independent Westerner coming to terms with a woman so culturally different and so domestically powerful.

Bouras, Gillian. 1986.  A Foreign Wife.  Australia: Penguin.

Gillian Bouras is an Australian married to a Greek. From the ambiguous position of a foreign wife she writes of life in a Greek village. Her fellow villagers fondly regard her, the migrant in their midst, as something of a curiosity. They, in turn, are the source of both her admiration and her perplexity.

Bouras, Gillian. 1996.  A Fair Exchange.  Australia: Penguin.

When Gillian Bouras went to live in a Greek village for a few months in 1980 she never imagined she would still be there 10 years later. In A Fair Exchange, she explores the upheavals and pleasures of exchanging one home for another. Out of her experience has grown a love of words and the patterns they make in her life. Despite her nostalgia for Australia, she cannot resist the impact of foreign landscapes and the people that surround her.

Bridge, Antony. 1978. Theodora: Portrait in a Byzantine Landscape. London: Cassell.

Browning, Robert. 1971. Justinian and Theodora. New York: Praeger.


Callinicos, Constance. 1991.  American Aphrodite: Becoming Female in Greek America. New York: Pella Publishing Company.

A wide-ranging analysis of the experiences of Greek immigrant women in America and their attempts to reconcile the culture of their origin, family expectations, and the new opportunities they found in the USA.

Cavounidis, J. 1983. “Capitalist Development and Women’s Work in Greece.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1(2): 321-338.

Clark, Elizabeth A. (editor). 1985. Women in the Early Church. Wilmington DE: Michael Glazier Inc.

A survey of the presence of women in the early church as reflected in the writings of Augustine, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Tertullian, Ambrose and other early Church Fathers.

Clarke, M. 1983. “Variations on Themes of Male and Female: Reflections on Gender Bias in Fieldwork in Rural Greece.” Women’s Studies 10(2): 117-133.

Comnena, Anna; Sewter, E. R. A (trans). 1979. The Alexiad of Anna Comnena (Penguin Classics Series).  London: Penguin.

Connell, R.W. 1987.  Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Cowan, J. 1994. “Women, Men and Pre-Lenten Carnival in Northern Greece: An Anthropological Exploration of Gender Transformation in Symbol and Practice.” Rural History 5(2): 195-210.

Cowan, J. 1996. “Being a Feminist in Contemporary Greece: Similarity and Difference Reconsidered.” In N. Charles and F. Hughs-Freeland (eds) Practising Feminism: Identity, Difference, Power. P 61-68. London: Routledge.

Cowan, Jane K. (editor). 1990. Dance and the Body Politic in Northern Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

In describing the multiple ideologies of person, gender and community that townspeople embody and explore as they dance, Cowan presents three different settings: the traditional wedding procession, the "Europeanized" formal evening dance of local civic associations, and the private party. She examines the practices of eating, drinking, talking, gifting and dancing, and the verbal discourse through which celebrants make sense of each other's actions. Paying particular attention to points of tension and moments of misunderstanding, she analyzes in what ways these social situations pose different problems for men and women.

Cyprus Social Research Centre. 1975. “Cypriot Woman - Rise and Downfall.” Nicosia, Cyprus: Cyprus Press & Information Office.

Very good survey done in 1975 for the International Women's Year on the situation of women in Cyprus just after the Turkish invasion.


Demos, V. 1994. “Marital Choice, Gender and the Reproduction of Greek Ethnicity.” In V. Demos and M. Segal (eds.), Ethnic Women: A Multiple Status Reality. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall.

Denich, Bette. 1974. “Sex and Power in the Balkans.” In M. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere (eds.), Women, Culture and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Denissi, Sophia. 2001.“The Greek Enlightenment and the Changing Cultural Status of Women”  Σύγκριση 12:  42-47.

Des Bouvrie. 1990.  Women in Greek Tragedy: An Anthropological Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dikaiou, M., D. Sakka and M. Haritos-Fatouros. 1987. “Maternal Attitudes of Greek Migrant Women.” International Migration 25(1): 73-80.

Dimen, M. 1983. “Servants and Sentries: Women, Power and Social Reproduction in Kriovrisi.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1(1): 225-241.

Dimitriou, S. 1989.  "Gender Roles and Symbolic Systems on an Aegean Island." Ph.D. dissertation, London School of Oriental and African Studies.

Doumanis, M. 1983.  Mothering in Greece: From Collectivism to Individualism. London: Academic Press.

Doxiadis, Evdoxios. 2011.  The Shackles of Modernity: Women, Property, and the Transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Greek State, 1750-1850. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Du Boulay, Juliet. 1980.  Portrait of a Greek Mountain Village. Limni, Evia,  Greece: Denise Harvey.

Fascinating for the student of Aegean history or of the contemporary, but now disappearing, Mediterranean way of life. The author reflects on her experiences as a traveler and on her knowledge as an anthropologist in this presentation of Greek village life, revealing the people's spiritual vision, social dexterity, intuitive symbolic perception, and strength of character.

Dubisch, J. 1974. “The Domestic Power of Women in a Greek Island Village.” Studies in European Society 1(1): 23-33.

Dubisch, J. 1983. “Greek Women: Sacred or Profane?” Journal of Modern Greek Studies. 1(1): 185-202.

Dubisch, J. (ed.), 1986.  Gender and Power in Rural Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dubisch, J. 1987. “Men’s Time and Women’s Time: History, Myth and Ritual at a Modern Greek Shrine. Journal of Ritual Studies 5(1): 1-26.

Dubisch, J. 1991. “Gender, Kinship and Religion: Reconstructing the Anthropology of Greece.” In P. Loizos and E. Papataxiarchis (eds.), Contested Identities: Gender and Kinship in Modern Greece, 29-47. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dubisch, J. 1995. In a Different Place: Pilgrimage, Gender and Politics of a Greek Island Shrine.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

An exploration of the shrine of the Panaghia at Tinos in the Cyclades, with the author's observations on the intersection of social, religious, and political life in Greece.

Dubisch, J. 1997. “Identification, Ethnicity, Gender and Culture.” Journal of International Studies 18: 41-48.


Fourtouni, Eleni. 1985. Greek Women in the WWII Resistance and the Civil War.  New Haven, CT: Thelphini Press.

Journals and oral histories detailing the participation of women in the Resistance during both WWII and the Greek Civil War.

Fournaraki, Eleni. 1987. “Εκπαίδευση και Αγωγή των Κοριτσιών. ”Ελληνικοί Προβληματισμοί (1830-1910), Ένα Ανθολόγιο.” Athens: Istoriko Αrheio Ellinikis Νeolaias.

Franzero, Carlo Maria. 1961. “The Life and Times of Theodora.” London: Alvin Redman.

Popular biography of the Byzantine Empress.

Friedl, E. 1975.  Women and Men: An Anthropological View. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Gadant, M. (ed), 1986.  Women of the Mediterranean. London: Zed Books.

Gilmore, David D., and Gretchen G. Gilmore. 1985. “Sex and Gender in Southern Europe. Problems and Prospects.” Anthropology 9 (1-2).


Halkias, A. 2003. “Money, God and Race: The Politics of Reproduction and the Nation in Modern Greece. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 10 (2): 211-232.

Harrison, J. 1994-1996. How Profoundly Has the Position of Women Changed in Post-War Greek society? To Giophyri 30-35.

Hart, Janet. 1996.  New Voices in the Nation: Woman and the Greek Resistance 1941-1964. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Well-documented account of the changes in women's roles in Greek society during the WWII and the aftermath.

Hart, Janet. 1990.“Women in Greek Society.” In Marion Sarafis and Martin Eve, eds., Background to Contemporary Greece, vol. 1. London: Merlin Press.

Herrin, Judith. 2002. Women in Purple: Rulers of Medieval Byzantium. London: Phoenix Press.

Across four generations the empresses Irene, Euphrosyne, and Theodora wielded imperial sovereignty with consummate ruthlessness and skill over the vast empire of Byzantium in the eighth and ninth centuries. Their legacy was to restore the veneration of icons and, in doing so, ensure Byzantium's influence for centuries to come.

Herzfeld, M. 1979. “Exploring a Metaphor of Exposure.” Journal of American Folklore 92: 285-301.

Herzfeld, M. 1983. “Semantic Slippage and Moral Fall: The Rhetoric of Chastity in Rural Greek Society. Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1: 161-172.

Herzfeld, M. 1985. “Gender Pragmatics: Agency, Speech and Bride-Theft in a Cretan Mountain Village.” Anthropology 9: 25-44.

Herzfeld, M. 1985. “Interpretation from Within: Metatext for a Cretan Quarrel.” In M. Alexiou and V. Lambropoulos (eds.), The Text and Its Margins.  New York: Pella.

Herzfeld, M. 1986. “Closure as Cure: Tropes in the Exploration of Bodily Social Disorder.” Current Anthropology 27(2):107-112.

Herzfeld, M. 1986. “Within and Without: The Category of ‘Female’ in the Ethnography of Modern Greece.In J. Dubisch (ed.), Gender and Power in Rural Greece.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Herzfeld, M. 1988.  The Poetics of Manhood: Contest and Identity in a Cretan Village. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Herzfeld, M. 1996. “In Defiance of Destiny: The Management of Time and Gender at a Cretan Funeral.” In Michael Jackson (ed.), Things as They Are: New Directions in Phenomenological Anthropology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Hirschon, R. 1978. “Open Body/Closed Space: The Transformation of Female Sexuality.” In S. Ardener (ed.),  Defining Females, The Nature of Women in Society. London: Croom Helm.

Hirschon R. 1978.  “The Transformation of Sexuality. In S. Ardener (ed.), Defining  Females. pp. 66-88. New York: John Wiley and Sons

Hirschon, R. 1978. “Under One Roof: Marriage Dowry and Family Relations in Piraeus.” In M. Kenny and D. Kerzter (eds.), Urban Life in Mediterranean Europe: Anthropological Perspectives. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Hirschon, R. et al, 1979. “Society, Culture and Spatial Organization: An Athens community.” Ekistics, 30: 187-196.

Hirschon, R. 1981. “Essential Objects and the Sacred: Interior and Exterior Space in an Urban Greek Locality.” In S. Ardener (ed.), Women and Space.  London: Croom Helm.

Hirschon R. 1983. “Women, the Aged and Religious Activity: Oppositions and Complimentarity in an Urban Locality.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 1(1): 113-129.

Hirschon, R. 1984.  Women and Property—Women as Property. New York: St Martin’s Press.

Hirschon, R. 1985. “The Woman-Environment Relationship: Greek Cultural Values in an Urban Community.” Ekistics 52: 15-21.

Hirschon, R. 1992. “Greek Adult’s Verbal Play, or How to Train for Caution.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 10(1): 35-56.

Hirschon, R. 1993. “Foreign Chickens and Other Outsiders: Gender and Community in Greece. American Ethnologist 20 (2): 272-287.

Hirschon, R. 1993. “Open Body/ Closed Space: The Transformation of Female Sexuality.” In S. Ardener (ed.), Defining Females.  Oxford: Berg.

Hirschon, R. and J. R. Gold. 1982. “Territoriality and the Home Environment in a Greek Urban Community.” Anthropological Quarterly 55: 63-73.


Kakavoulia, Maria. 2004. Morfes kai lexeis sto ergo tes Elenes Vakalo. Athens: Nefele.

Kaplan, G. 1992. Contemporary West European Feminism. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. (chapter 2 on Greece).

Karakasidou, A. 1997.  “Women of the Family, Women of the Nation: National Enculturation Among Slav Speakers in North West Greece.” In P. Mackridge and E. Yannakakis (eds.), Ourselves and Others. The Development of Greek Macedonian Identity since 1912. Oxford: Berg.

Kazazis, K. 1982. “Re-analysis in Modern Greek Women’s Surnames.” International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics 25-26: 233-238.

Kazazis, K. 1983. “Men vs. Women in The Third Wedding.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1:131-140.

Kessler, E. 1976. “Sarakatsani Women of Greece.” In Women: An Anthropological View. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Kitromilides, P. 1983. “The Enlightenment of Womanhood: Cultural Change and the Politics of Exclusion.”  Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1 (1): 39-61.

Kolocotroni, Vassiliki and Efterpi Mitsi. 2008. Women Writing Greece: Essays on Hellenism, Orientalism and Travel. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Women Writing Greece explores images of modern Greece by women who experienced the country as travelers, writers, and scholars, or who journeyed there through the imagination. The essays assembled here consider women's travel narratives, memoirs and novels, ranging from the eighteenth to the late twentieth century, focusing on the role of gender in travel and crosscultural mediation and challenging stereotypical views of ‘the Greek journey,’ traditionally seen as an antiquarian or Byronic pursuit. This collection aims to cast new light on women's participation in the discourses of Hellenism and Orientalism, examining their ideological rendering of Greece as at once a luminous land and a site crossed by contradictory cultural memories.

Arranged chronologically, the essays discuss encounters with Greece by, among others, Lady Elizabeth Craven, Lady Hester Stanhope, Lady Montagu, Lady Morgan, Mary Shelley, Felicia Skene, Emily Pfeiffer, Eva Palmer, Jane Ellen Harrison, Virginia Woolf, Ethel Smyth, Christa Wolf, Penelope Storace and Gillian Bouras, and analyze them through a variety of critical, historical, contextual and theoretical frames. 

Individual essay contributions by Christina Dokou, Churnjeet Kaur Mahn, Asimina Karavanta, Martha Klironomos, Maria Koundoura, Artemis Leontis, T. D. Olverson, Helga Ramsey-Kurz, Vassiliki Markidou, Efterpi Mitsi and Evgenia Sifaki.

Kraus, Rene. 1938. Theodora: The Circus Empress. New York: Doubleday Doran.

Kyriakidou, Maria. 1996. “Δύο Διαφορετικές Προσεγγίσεις Αντιστασιακής Δράσης των Ελληνίδων.Ιστώρ 9:  179-187.

Kyriakidou, Maria.  2000.  ‘The Feminist Movement in Greece (c.1910-c.1936):  From Gender to Feminist Consciousness and Politicization.’ PhD dissertation, King’s College London.

Kyriakidou, Maria. 2001.“Ο Φεμινιστικός Τύπος στην Ελλάδα του Μεσοπολέμου.”  Ιστώρ 12:  67-105.

Kyriazis, N. 1995. “Feminism and Status of Women in Greece.” In D. Constas and T. Stavrou (eds.), Greece Prepares for the Twenty-first Century.  Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.


Layoun, Mary M. 2001. Wedded to the Land? Gender, Boundaries, and Nationalism in Crisis. Duke, NC: Duke University Press.

Lazaridis, G. 2009. Women’s Work and Lives in Rural Greece. Aldershot, UK and Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Leonardo, di M. 1987.  The Female World of Cards and Holidays. Signs 12(3): 440-453.

Loizos, P. 1994. “A Broken Mirror: Masculine Sexuality in Greek Ethnography.” In A. Cornwall and N. Lindisfarne (eds.), Dislocating Masculinity. Comparative Ethnographies. London: Routledge.

Loizos Peter, and Evthymios Papataxiarchis.(eds.), 1991.  Contested Identities: Gender and Kinship in Modern Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Collection of essays on family relationships and women's roles and behavior in Greek society.
Part One: Gender and kinship in married life.
  • “Gender, Kinship and Religion: 'Reconstructing' the Anthropology of Greece” by Jill Dubisch
  • “Cosmos and Gender in Village Greece” by Juliet du Boulay
  • “Silence, Submission and Subversion: Towards a Poetics of Womenhood” by Michael Herzfeld
  • “The Resolution of a Conflict through Song in Greek Ritual Therapy” by Loring Danforth
  • “The Limits of Kinship” by Roger Just.
Part Two: Gender and kinship outside marriage:
  • “Sisters in Christ: Metaphors of Kinship among Greek Nuns” by A. Marina Iossafides
  • “Friends of the Heart: Male Commensal Solidarity, Gender and Kinship in Aegean Greece” by Evthymios Papataxiarchis
  • “Going out for Coffee? Contesting the Grounds of Gendered Pleasures in Everyday Sociability” by Jane Cowan
  • “Hunters and Hunted: Kamaki and the Ambiguities of Sexual Predation in a Greek Town” by Sofka Zinovieff
  • “Gender, Sexuality and the Person in Greek Culture” by Peter Loizos and Evthymios Papataxiarchis

Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. 1927. Certain Samaritans. New York: Macmillan.

After establishing nursing and hospital services during World War I, an intrepid group of women formed the American Woman's Hospitals Service and, together with other charitable organizations helped provide medical care and relief to the war-torn and destitute populations of the Balkans and the Near East, and in particular in Greece (after 1923 - to the refugees from the Smyrna disaster).

Lozanovska, M. 1989. “Gender and Architecture in a Macedonian Village.” Exedra 1(2): 4-12.


Macrakis, A. Lily , and P. Allen. (eds.). 1983. “Women and Men in Greece; A Society in Transition.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1 (1).

Mandel, R. 1983. “Sacrifice at the Bridge of Arta: Sex Roles and the Manipulation of Power.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1: 173-183.

Moschou-Sakorrafou, Sasa. 1990. Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Φεμινιστικού Κινήματος. Athens.

Multi-national Women's Liberation Group. 1979.  Foreign Women in Greece.  Athens: Denise Harvey.

Useful guide for foreign women with information on community services, marriage, citizenship, family law, adjustment, education, employment, language, housing, children's education, crosscultural children, etc. (now rather dated because of many legislative and social changes, but a snapshot of Greece c.1979).

Neil, Bronwen, and Lynda Garland, (eds.), 2014. Questions of Gender in Byzantine Society, Ashgate, UK and Burlington, VT: Ashgate

Gender was a key social indicator in Byzantine society, as in many others. While studies of gender in the western medieval period have appeared regularly in the past decade, similar studies of Byzantium have lagged behind. Masculine and feminine roles were not always as clearly defined as in the West, while eunuchs made up a 'third gender' in the imperial court. Social status indicators were also in a state of flux, as much linked to patronage networks as to wealth, as the Empire came under a series of external and internal pressures. This fluidity applied equally in ecclesiastical and secular spheres. The present collection of essays uncovers gender roles in the imperial family, in monastic institutions of both genders, in the Orthodox church, and in the nascent cult of Mary in the east. It puts the spotlight on flashpoints over a millennium of Byzantine rule, from Constantine the Great to Irene and the Palaiologoi, and covers a wide geographical range, from Byzantine Italy to Syria.

Nicol, Donald M. 1996. The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits 1250-1500. Cambridge: Canto/Cambridge University Press

A collection of biographies, demonstrating the power and influence gained by women in the later years of the Byzantine Empire.

Papandreou, M. 1984. “Greece: A Village Sisterhood.” In Robin Morgan (ed) Sisterhood is Global.  Garden City, NJ: Anchor Press. 272-77.

Papataxiarchis, E. 1995. “Male Mobility and Matrifocality in the Aegean Basin.” In Damaniakos, S. et al., eds. Brothers and others: Essays in honor of John Peristiany, 219-239. Athens: National Centre of Social Research and Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes.

Essays in honor of John Peristiany. Athens: National Centre of Social Research and Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes. Pp 219-239.

Paxson, Heather. 2002. “Rationalizing Sex: Family Planning and the Making of Modern Lovers in Urban Greece.” American Ethnologist, 29 (2): 1-28.

Paxson, Heather. 2004. Making Modern Mothers: Ethics and Family Planning in Urban Greece. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Making Modern Mothers is an anthropological account of changing ideas about gender and fertility control in contemporary urban Greece.

Perreault, Jacques Y. (ed) 1991. “Women and Byzantine Monasticism.”Athens: Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens.

Proceedings of the Athens Symposium, 28-29 March 1988 (Publications of the Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens, No. 1, 1991).

Pollis, A. 1992. “Gender and Social Change in Greece: The Role of Women. In T. Kariotis (ed.), The Greek Socialist experiment: Papandreous’ Greece 1981-1989. New York: Pella.

Poulos, Margaret. 2009. Arms and the Woman. New York:  Columbia University Press.


Rogers, S. C. 1975. “Female Forms of Power and the Myth of Male Dominance: A Model of Female/Male Interaction in Peasant Society.” American Ethnologist 1(4): 727-756.


Safilios-Rothschild, C. 1968. “Good and ‘Bad’ Girls in Modern Greek Movies.” Journal of Marriage and the Family, 30 (3): 527-531.

Safilios-Rothschild, C. 1977.  Love, Sex and Sex Roles. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall.

Salamone, S. D. 1987. “Tradition and Gender: The Nykokyrio. The Ethics of Sex Role Complimentarity. Ethnos, 15:203-225.

Sciama, L. 1993. “The Problem of Privacy in Mediterranean Anthropology.” In S. Ardener (ed.), Women and Space. Ground Rules and Social Maps. Oxford: Berg.

Seremetakis, C. 1991.  The Last Word: Women, Death and Divination in Inner Mani. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Seremetakis, C. 1993.  Ritual Power and the Body: Historical Perspectives on the Representation of Greek Women. New York: Pella Publishing.

Skiada, V. 1990. “Gender and Material Culture: The Social History of Wealth in Olymbos, a Greek Insular Village.”  Ph.D. dissertation, New School for Social Research.

Stamaris, E. 1986. “The Woman’s Movement in Greece.” New Left Review 158: 98-112.

Strathern, M. 1996. “Gender: Division or Comparison?” In N. Charles and F. Hughes-Freeland (eds.), Practising Feminism: Identity, Difference and Power. London: Routledge.

Sutton, D. 1999. “Re-Scripting Women’s Collective Action: Nationalist Writing and the Politics of Gendered Memory.” Identities 5(4): 469-500.


Tavard, G. 1973. Women in Christian Tradition. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Tavasar, C. and I. Kirillova. 1977. Orthodox Women: Their Role and Participation in the Orthodox Church. Geneva: World Council of Churches.

Theodoropoulou, Avra. 1927. “Ο Φεμινισμός στην Ελλάδα.” Νέα Εστία 2:  867-868.


Vaiou, D. 1992. “Gender Divisions in Urban Space: Beyond the Rigidity of Dualist Classification.” Antipode 24 (4): 247-262.

Valetas, G. 1982. “Τα Πρώτα Φεμινιστικά Κηρύγματα στην Ελλάδα.”  Νέα Εστία1331: 225-229

Van Huyck, R. 1989. Menache to Menopause: Reproductive Lives of Peasant Women in Two Cultures Albany: State University of New York Press.

Van Steen, Gonda. 2011. Theatre of the Condemned: Classical Tragedy on Greek Prison Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 3 documents the experience of Greek women in exile with emphasis on their cultural and educational initiatives.

Van Steen, Gonda. 2003. “Margarita Papandreou: Bearing Gifts to the Greeks?” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 21(2): 245-282.

Based on a study of the personal archives of M. Papandreou.

Varika, Eleni. 1987. “H Εξέργεση Των Κυριών.”  Athens: Meletes Neoellinikes Historias, Hidryma Ereunas kai Paidias tes Emporikes Trapezas tes Elladas.

Varikas, Eleni. 1993. “Gender and National Identity in fin de siècle Greece.” Gender and History 5:  269-283.

Vervenioti, Tassoula. 2000.  “Left-Wing Women between Politics and Family.”  In Mark Mazower, ed. After the War was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation, and State in Greece. Princeton:  Princeton University Press.


Whitehead, A. 1984. “Women and Men: Kinship and Property. Some General Issues.” In R. Hirschon (ed.), Woman and Property—Women as Property. London: Croom Helm.


Xiradaki, Koula. 1988. “Το Φεμινιστικό Κίνημα στην Ελλάδα.”  Athens: Glaros.


Ziogou-Karastergiou, Sidiroula. 1983.  Η Μέση Εκπαίδευση των Κοριτσιών στην Ελλάδα (1830-1893). PhD dissertation, University of Thessaloniki.


Women in Ancient Greece

Barber, Elizabeth Wayland. 1994. Women's Work: The First 20,000 Years - Women, Cloth and Society in Early Times. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

Fascinating account of the contribution of women to early cultures, with archaeological and anthropological evidence for their skills in weaving, spinning, and the development of textiles.

Cantarella, Eva; Fant, Maureen B. (translator). 1987. Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity (Ancient Society and History Series). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

First published in Italian as L'ambiguo malanno by Editori Riuniti 1981.

Demand, Nancy H.  1982. Thebes in the Fifth Century - Heracles Resurgent. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

The author examines the military and political history of Thebes, and also investigates a number of other aspects of life in the city: its physical layout, cults, poetry and music, arts and crafts, philosophy, the role of women in Theban society.

Lefkowitz, Mary F. and Maureen B. Fant. 1990. Women's Life in Greece and Rome. Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press.

Collection of translated documents illustrating the life of women in classical times.

Lightman, Marjorie, and Benjamin Lightman. 2000. Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Greek and Roman Women: Notable Women from Sappho to Helena. New York: Checkmark Books.

Loraux, Nicole. 1993. The Children of Athena : Athenian Ideas About Citizenship and the Division between the Sexes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Peradotto, John and J. P. Sullivan (eds). 1983. Women in the Ancient World: The Arethusa Papers. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Interesting collection of essays about women's role and conditions of life in the ancient world by a wide range of scholars: Marilyn B. Arthur, Helene P. Foley, Linda S. Sussman, Page du Bois, Sheila McNally, K. J. Dover, Froma I. Zeitlin, Charles Segal, Dorothea Wender, Larissa Bonfante Warren, Judith P. Hallett, Leo C. Curran, Elizabeth A. Fisher, Sarah B. Pomeroy.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. 1975. “Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity.” New York: Schocken Books.

Wide-ranging examination of the evidence for the various roles and perceptions of women in Greek and Roman society.

Rotroff, Susan I. and Robert D. Lamberton. 2006. Women in the Athenian Agora. Athens: American School of Classical Studies.

Evidence from the excavations in the Athenian Agora of the life of women in classical Greece. In addition, details of the women who helped in the excavations of the American School.

Sealey, Raphael. 1990. Women and Law in Classical Greece. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Based on a careful reading of the legal evidence, this book assesses the status of women in classical Greece.

Seltman, Charles. 1962. Women in Antiquity. London: Pan.

Snyder, Jane McIntosh. 1990. The Woman and the Lyre: Women Writers in Classical Greece and Rome. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside,

Beginning with Sappho (7th c. BC) and ending with Hypatia and Egeria (5th c. AD), this book presents the major women writers of classical Greece and Rome and situates the surviving fragments of their works in their historical context.

Weigall, Arthur. 1937. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. London: Thornton Butterworth.

A solid, scholarly and interesting biography of this poetess, including every known fragment of Sappho's poetry is quoted in full ... (using) the Greek text as edited by J. M. Edmonds in his Lyra Greca. The notion that there were two Sapphos-one the poet and the other the courtesan-is discussed and dismissed.

Weigall, Arthur. 1982. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.

A solid, scholarly and interesting biography of this poetess, including every known fragment of Sappho's poetry is quoted in full ...(using) the Greek text as edited by J. M. Edmonds in his Lyra Greca". The notion that there were two Sapphos-one the poet and the other the courtesan-is discussed and dismissed.

Wilson, Lyn Hatherly. 1996. Sappho's Sweetbitter Songs: Configurations of Female and Male in Ancient Greek Lyric. London: Routledge.

In this volume, late 20th-century theories of feminism, psychoanalysis, and literary criticism are applied to Sappho's lyrics.

Zinserling, Verena (Trans. L. A. Jones). 1972. Women in Greece and Rome. New York: Abner Schram.

The lives of women in the ancient world reconstructed and beautifully illustrated, with examples ranging from Minoan frescoes to the mosaics in Ravenna.